It was the second half of the 18th century, when Matvey Kazakov built Petrovsky palace on the north-west outskirts of Moscow. These were Petrovsky abbey lands at that time. Park replaced open spaces and gardens around the palace a bit later: in 1829. Staying at the palace before the ceremonial entry to Moscow became a tradition of Royal family, which continued after the railroad construction.
Specially for that Tsarskaya line was built from Nikolayevskaya railroad to the Brest (Belorusskiy for now) railway station. The Royal family was arriving to the Petrosky palace to make a ceremonial entry to the capital the next day. The place had some transformations during the 20th century: Beria’s dacha, “Dinamo” stadium and two metro stations (one of which is still under construction) are placed there now. Let’s go for a walk through the park and look for some interesting places and historical artifacts.
1. It’s locigal to start the excursion from the “Dinamo” metro station, which is placed at the corner of Peterburgskoye highway near the middle part of the park. The station’s hall was designed by Dimtry Chechulin, bas-reliefs – by Elena Yason-Manizer.
2. A part of the park, located between metro station and the palace, preserved the best: other ones are divided by the streets, or are built-up.
3. Petrovsky palace is a Russian neo-Gothic masterpiece.
4. This is where Napoleon came, escaping from the Moscow conflagration in 1812.
5. «Here stands, with shady park surrounded,
Petrovsky Castle; and the fame
in which so lately it abounded
rings proudly in that sombre name.
Napoleon here, intoxicated
with recent fortune, vainly waited
till Moscow, meekly on its knees,
gave up the ancient Kremlin-keys:
but no, my Moscow never stumbled
nor crawled in suppliant attire.
No feast, no welcome-gifts — with fire
the impatient conqueror was humbled!
From here, deep-sunk in pensive woe,
he gazed out on the threatening glow.»
A.S.Pushkin, «Eugene Onegin», part 7. (tr.Ch.Johnston)
6. Zhukovsky Air Force Engineering Academy was taking place in the palace from 1920 to 1997 (with one break: Academy was evacuated to Sverdlovsk during the war, and 18th Air army’s headquarters were placed here).
7. After reconstruction, The House of Moscow Government receptions, elite hotel, restaurant, swimming pool and sauna were placed in the palace.
8. In other word, everything for the serious gentlemen.
9. There is a round crossroad right behind the palace: the square of Vladimir Komarov, astronaut, who died during the first “Soyuz” testing.
10. The square had a name “The big round” before the revolution and a musical pavilion on it.
11. There is red-and-white Blagoveshenskaya church on the left side of the square. It was built in 1847 by A.D.Naryshkina. The avenue behind the church was named after her. It’s construction was dedicated to the memory on Anna Bulgary, granddaughter of the ramsdellite, who died in her 14.
12. The PriestMartyr Vladimir (Medvedyuk) and NewMartyrs and Cofessors of Russia temple was built nearby in 2002.
13. Let’s go to Krasnoarmeyskaya street now.
14. A lot of restaurants and other entertainment facilities are gathering round the park since 20th century. Here you can see “Elrodado” restaurant. There is “Eldoradovsky” lane, named after this restaurant.
15. Civil architect N.D.Polycarpov by request of the merchant Skalkin constructed this building in 1913.
16. Here, in 1918 Lenin was speaking at a mass-meeting of the working masses of Butyrsky district. After that Zhukovsky Air Force Engineering Academy officer club was located here.
17. Today the reconstructed building belongs to “Mechel” company.
18. A house across the street contrasts sharply with modernist facade of the restaurant.
19. It was built after the plans of Trufanov architect in 1931 for above-mentioned Air Force Engineering Academy.
20. Take a look of a house with modest portico on the Narishkinskaya avenue. Despite it’s poor appearance, this is one of the most luxurious suburban villas of pre-revolutionary Moscow: “The black swan” of Ryabushinsky.
21. Ryabushinsky brothers were not limited by the textile manufactures, they inherited from their father. They’ve founded a bank, were managing paper, glass, forest and peat business, founded “AMO” factory (aka “ZiL” afterwards), were publishing newspapers and magazines. “The black swan” villa was built for Nikolay Ryabushinsky by architects V.M.Mayat and V.D.Adamovich.
22. In 1918, after the owner ran away, district Cheka office was accommodated here. Cheka officers were surprised to find a rich collection of icons, prepared for transportation in the house. Those icons are in Tretyakovskaya gallery now.
23. Five streets are meeting in the north-west corner of the park: Naryshkinskaya avenue, Seryogina street, Planetnaya street, Petrovsko-Razumovskaya avenue and Stary Petrovsko-Razumovsky passage. There is a monument to hussars, who were taking part in War of 1812.
24. Further down the Stary Petrovsko-Razumovsky passage, after 8th of March street we will see a modern building, but the really interesting thing here is a beautiful fence to the left.
25. There is a Moscow regional mental asylum, behind the fence, which is taking this place for more than 100 years. Somewhere among the modern blocks, you can find buildings of 19th century, left after F.A.Usoltsev private clinic.
26. “Fairy” fence of the clinic was built by F.O.Shehtel project, based of M.A.Vrubel’s pictures, who was taking treatment here twice in 1904-1905. Warm and domestic atmosphere, which Vrubel found here, influenced his health positively.
27. A part of the clinic territory is occupied by the business center, but the fence is staying untouched.
28. Let’s continue our excursion returning back and turning to the Petrovsko-Razumovskaya avenue.
29. In the background of the block you can find Air force officers’ house, which was built in 1939 and has a beautiful colonnade.
30. The monumental house number 16 closes up the avenue perspective. This is one of the colossal houses, which appeared after the “Seven Sisters” (Stalinskie vysotki). Such houses were built in different districts, a lot of them can be found near the Leningradsky Prospekt.
31. This house project was not much successful: its authors M.M.Dzisko and L.A.Moshin were criticized for the ornateness and eclecticism of the house. But location of the building is noticeably good: the monumental facade closes up the street perspective in both directions. Aircraft designer Ilsushin also lived in this house.
32. Next, on the aviation and space medicine Institute territory an ancient building contrasts with the environment.
33. This is the former “Mavritania” hotel, where L.Tolstoy’s novel “Voskresenye” events were taking place.
34. This is where the dogs were being prepared for space investigations. Quite logical that a monument of Laika, the first space dog, who became a victim of Khrushchev’s space ambitions, was erected in 2008 here. When the dog was sent to the space, its’ spaceship didn’t have any landing system and the animal died in space.
35. Entrance to one of the new institute blocks.
36. The mall on the other side of the street is built in constructivist style.
37. “Dinamo” football arena is also located on the other side. We’ll talk about the legendary stadium a bit later.
38. House number 8 is decorated with a memorial tablet in memory of sculptor E.F.Belashova, who is known as the creator of N.K.Krupskaya monument in Sretensky boulevard in Moscow and A.S.Pushkin monument in Pushkinskie Gory.
39. Severe residential buildings, that are located in the beginning of the avenue, were definitely constructed in 1920s. Their walls are decorated with memorial tablets of I.E.Grabar, U.I.Pimenov, S.V.Gerasimov.
40. This is a block of houses, designed by architect L.I.Saveliev for Association of Artists of Russia. The project was evaluated as unsatisfying before it was even finished, and A.V.Shchusev had been fixing it. However, the project was realized only partially.
41. The block had letter notation. “Zh” block was finished first: in 1929-1931. Burned-out blocks of “Mezhrabpomfilm” film studio were located here before.
42. You can find description of this house in U.Trifonov tale “Mark Shagalov visit”.
43. “A” and “B” blocks’ construction started in 1933 and 1934 respectively. Arc, that had to connect two houses, disappeared from the project.
44. The last block, named “V”, was finished only in 1957 in absolutely different style.
45. Monumental facades of the house with huge workshop windows are decorated with thematic bas-reliefs.
46. The kindergarten entrance has a corresponding design.
47. Boulders, which are lying near the doorways, are stuff for sculptors, living in this house.
48. Unity of for houses was recognized as an object of cultural heritage of regional significance in 2008.
49. There is Third Ring Road behind the Artist town on Novaya Bashilovka.
50. We’ve found an old rusty Moskvitch 400, which used to be an advertisement of a car wash.
51. While moving to metro, let’s take a look at “Dinamo” – one of the main stadiums in Moscow.
52. The stadium was built in 1928 by A.Y.Langman and L.Z.Cherikover project. It became a cult place soon.
53. In the beginning tribune was horseshoe-shaped and could contain 20 thousands of viewers. The football ground was rounded by cycle and motorcycle tracks.
54. East tribune closed the ring in 1936 and the track was terminated. The field was lifted down on a few meters. The photo shows not the kitchen-garden, organized there at war, but the preparation for the competition in 1941. At war time the stadium was disguised from hostile aviation by a spruce grove, which was planted over it.
55. The stadium was used in Olympic football tournament in 1980. Only a tiny part of it remains today. I’ve visited the demolition of the stadium: http://deletant.livejournal.com/29088.html
56. Halls of “Dinamo” metro station are placed near the west tribune. That’s where the circle of today’s excursion closes.